Expression of Art and Beauty in Rural Communities

By Mansoureh Tahbaz and Saleheh Bokharaei.

Published by The Arts Collection

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Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

With a look at the rural communities and simpler life forms, we find out that despite the simple way of doing things and lack of modern amenities, we are still able to see various expressions of art in the objects made by rural people that they use in their daily life. Since beauty is often taken to be the measure of quality for art, the question here then arises as to the relationship between characteristics of beauty and intrinsic tendencies of human being and the question that why beauty is an inseparable part of human life even in its most simplest form.
Due to their nature, human beings are complicated and have many needs. As Abraham Maslow said, in his theory of hierarchy of human needs that people’s needs fall in two categories: primary and secondary needs. Primary needs are physiological and if not meet physical disorders occur; while secondary needs are sublimed and human beings confront them only after their primary needs are satisfied and appear as innate and their absence results in dishearten and discontent. Therefore, it can be said that the need to beauty is one of the secondary needs of human beings and emerge after primary needs are meet.
In this paper we take a look at Iran’s rural communities and see whether existing manifestations of beauty in their clothes, shoes, handicrafts, tools and especially in their architecture emerge after their primary needs are meet. Thus the hypothesis is that according to Maslow, beauty is an important secondary need and has serious presence even in the simplest forms of human communities.
In order to test this hypothesis we first define beauty, various kinds of beauty and then valuate the role of beauty in relation to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and for this reason Iran’s rural community is chosen as a sample due to existing simplicity in its everyday life.

Keywords: Art, Beauty, Rural Communities, Iran Anthropology, Clothes, Handicrafts, Tools, Architecture

International Journal of the Arts in Society, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp.1-38. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 4.105MB).

Dr. Mansoureh Tahbaz

Associate Professor of the School of Architecture and Urban Planning, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Mansoureh Tahbaz (Ph.D. of Architecture): Professor Assistant; Graduated from Shahid Beheshti University in Architecture; M. Arch Thesis: “Thermal Comfort in Open Areas and Passages”, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, 1990. (By supervising of Dr. Mahmoud Razjouyan); Ph.D Thesis: “Warmth-Light Mask of Window, evaluation of solar energy and daylight in window design simultaneously”, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, 2004. (By supervising of Dr. Mahmoud Razjouyan and Prof. Peter Tregenza); Publications: 5 books in the field of environmental architecture, 16 articles in scientific Journals, 50 articles in international conferences in Iran and abroad, 12 completed research projects; Awards and Patent: Being awarded as “The Best Woman Researcher” in the Women and Research Nation-wide Festival in Tehran Dec. 2004, One Patent of Evaluating Solar Energy & Daylight Getting through the Window Simultaneously in a Pattern Year, Research and Industry Ministry, Patent No. 32791, Sep. 2005. Being awarded as the best PhD student by the ministry of science and technology of Iran, Being awarded as the best PhD project in the conference of energy conservation in building (IFCO IRAN) 2006, Being awarded as the best article in the conference of the conference of energy conservation in building (IFCO IRAN) 2003, Being awarded as the best poster presentation by the conference of CISBAT 2009 (EPFL University Switzerland).

Saleheh Bokharaei

Ph.D Student, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Ph.D Student of the School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran

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